Write a report on "Research Method Proposal".
IntroductionGlobalization has resulted in the global interlinking of economies, which (Ibrahim and Al Falasi, 2014) attributed to up surged technological advancements that have heightened competition in the current business environment. Gregory (2002) further noted that with the up surging acknowledgment that growth in global trade, as enabled by advancements in communications, technology, and transport facilitation has led to the increased competition of global markets. Raymond (1989); Steven and Gregory (2002) indicated that the more pronounce economic globalization becomes, the more tied is the ability of organizations to effectively compete in the global marketplace. This ability will solely lay on these organizations’ quality of their resources, specifically the human resources.
Numerous organizations depend on their human resources for their expertise to identify and adopt innovations and technologies; thereby bringing in competitive advantages in the marketplace (Reiche, 2007). In this marketplace, retaining staff is thus an indispensable ingredient for organizational performance and productivity. Nonetheless, retaining staff is not only an organizational challenge but also a global concern. Organizational top-level managers are persistently hampered with challenges or retaining their valuable and skilled staff. More evidently, this has been a major concern for managers to lower their organization’s high turnovers at the expense of increasing changing and demanding marketplace (Arthur, 1994; Tayeb, 1997; Buck and Watson, 2002; Debrah and Budhwar, 2004; Budhwar and Mellahi,2007; Sam and Chipunza, 2009).
Indeed, there exist challenges in retaining staff, which often result in the vital component of organizational abilities to warrant sustained competence and competitiveness (Barney, 1991; Woods, Heck, and Sciarini, 1998; Price, 2004; Sinangli, 2004; Holland, Sheehan and De Cieri, 2007). The challenges, amongst other aspects, are importantly associated with the organizational culture, leadership models, structural support, and remuneration schemes in the organization (Pamella, 2003). These challenges are further compelled by the situation that high skilled staff ostensibly leave their jobs for prospects of higher financial recompenses, and better-working situations. Further, these employees according to Zheng and Lamond (2010) are at times preyed by larger organizations such as corporates, and multi-nationals, which are able to offer better and more benefits. This is purely evident in UAE, which is an economic hub for the Middle East and has not been an exception to the dynamic global economy (Wouter and Peter, 2007). While as, organizations are designing and re-strategizing to curb these challenges, they are also identifying the need to maintain committed, skilled, and talented workforces, which will meaningfully add to the prosperity and accomplishments of the organization. But, these organizations may be inadequate in establishing reforms and initiatives that will help hold their workforce (Tayeb, 1997; Buck and Watson, 2002; Debrah and Budhwar, 2004; Budhwar and Mellahi, 2007).
Statement of the Problem
Every organization needs to continually recognize the critical role of HRM practices prior to departure of their top level management, middle-level personnel, and lower-level employees. Nonetheless, in place of such recognition, it is worrisome that in spite of the programs, incentives, policies and support availed at establishing new and revamping existent public organizations, these organizations have continually failed to adopt effective HRM practices and performed below the expectation in UAE (Dubai Economic Development Department, 2013). For these organizations to thrive they must have a people (Human Resource) that are a source of immense support of the development of the public sector’s objectives and mandate. Public sectors organizations are increasingly recognizing the significant asset that comes with the human resource and one that could enhance sustainable competitive advantage. Nonetheless, they fail to realize the prominence of effective management of human resources in enhancing the organizational well-being. Dole and Schroeder (2014) note that from this failure, they are not able to invest sufficient resources in enhancing their capacity in needed human resource competencies. The inadequate focus on the management of the human resource is observed as contributing to organizational conflicts and failing shareholder expectations (Sousa-Poza, 2015). It also stands between performance and failure in numerous public organizations in UAE, particularly, in the Dubai Emirate and other developing emirates. Thus, impeding the sustainable performance of the public organizations (Scott-Findlay and Estabrooks, 2016). Resultantly, there emerge the higher turnover rates standing at 47.6% for UAE’s public sector (Dubai Economic Development Department, 2013)
According to Zheng and Lamond (2010), every time is a hiring period for organizations as they seek to refill left positions in their organizations. The resultant cost of recruiting new employees to fill vacant positions in organizations is exceptionally very high; more occasionally it is underestimated owing to unforeseen and/or unreported costs and implications for staff turnover (Buck and Watson, 2007). Abbasi and Holman (2016) further indicated that the higher incidences of turnovers bring with them more than the visible monetary costs. Turnover incidences also demotivate and demoralize the employees left behind; as well as they adversely lower the morale for the workplace. Moreover, in addition to the costs of hiring new staff, organizations are also worst hit as new recruitments every now and then have negative influences on their performance and productivity. Statistically, the departure of committed, skilled, and talented workforces is far too alarming (Abubakar, 2014). For instance, one particular organization in the public sector and based in Dubai recorded a 10.2% turnover rate alone in 2011; in 2013, another organization witnessed up to 14% (Alnimir, 2015). The departures included resignations and absconds. Reasonably, the Alnimir (2015) attributed these departures to poor and unfair performance appraisal, performance evaluations, low remunerations, no promotion or motivation schemes, unfavorable organizational cultures, and deplorable working conditions
In the contemporary business environment, staff seems to be less committed to their respective employers. Because the employer may fail to warrant the longevity or stability of their staff’s corporate career paths, or job securities, the traditional contract of staff loyalty in exchange for security and/ or tenure and fair work has eroded away in the recent past (Overman, 2014). Seemingly, the contemporary trends are directed towards establishing career portfolios (Handy, 2015), because the workforce is continually recognizing that they role and efforts are what is now need to achieve employment resilience, develop skills, capabilities, and flexibility required to meet the constantly changing employer requirements. Additionally, Beck (2013) attributes these shifts to the emerging emphasis on professional and/or ‘portfolio’ growth as opposed to organizational loyalty (Levine, 2012). The resultant unstable markets have favored non-market organizations, thereby leading to the decline in job stabilities and decreasing incidences of long-term employments in most organizations. As a result, the emergent job insecurity/ instability and the reduced employee commitment have resulted in inequalities in both employment and incomes (Darwish, 2013).
Owing to the above description, the UAE workforce is countered with a need of change, which in history was unprecedented. Moreover, with the aspects of ‘empowerment’ coming up combined with the unfavorable working conditions (longer working hours, less leisure time, little or no leaves or work-offs, inadequate remuneration) and necessity of risk-taking escalate employees’ risk of ‘burnout’. Indeed, these may well explain why public organizations’ employees have had their values discernibly shifting (Whitener, 2014), and why highly skilled staff believe their greatest opportunities lay with reassigning from one organization to another (Margo Vanover, 2014).
As such, addressing the root causes of the departure of employees is far the most crucial element for HRM, as this would also adequately curb the higher incidences of turnover. Previous researchers (Buck and Watson, 2007; Levine, 2012; Darwish, 2013; Dole and Schroeder, 2014; Whitener, 2014; Alnimir, 2015) have indicated the prospect of enhancing job satisfaction, enabling work-life balances, and organizational committeemen with organizations’ ability to holding their workforces. Vehemently, this study will review this prospect through evaluating the contribution these aspects and other HRM practices to the public organizations’ capacity to effectively retain their staff.
The literature will embed the very recent and related research on HRM practices with respect to staff retention, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover. Firstly, the literature will present the background of HRM practices as applied in the UAE. It will emphasize on the manner in which staff is handled, managed and developed. Further, the literature will address the concerns of staff retention and turnover, their commitment to organizations, and job satisfaction. Indeed, the literature will relate the available theories and empirical findings with HRM practices.
HRM Practices in UAE
The UAE has witnessed a notable difference between staff and workplace opportunities and workplace conditions for private and public organizations. A larger proportion of the workforce prefers securing employment in the public sector. Reasonably, the public sector is believed to provide better remunerations, established job tenure/ stability/ or security, and better workplace conditions, and better working hours as compared to the private sector (Godwin, 2006; Mellahi, 2007; Dubai Economic Development Department, 2013). The Dubai Economic Development Department (2013) also noted that over 75% of UAE’s workforce is engaged in the public sector. Abdelkarim (2015) observed that the evident preference of the public sector by UAE’s labor force was not an issue of concern. The numerous government organizations, bodies, departments and agencies always offered more jobs than the private sector. UAE has a small population of about 900,000 people (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2013). But, in the recent past hiring in the public sector has saturated already (Government of UAE, 2012) leading to the decreased number of employment opportunities.
At present UAE is hampered with grave challenges, which would potentially affect the country’s economy and by extension the labor market. The situation of decreased jobs in the public sector has compelled the government to initiate schemes where it could help its citizens seize appropriate employment in the private sector (Dubai Economic Development Department, 2013). But, the shift of employees from the private sector into the public sector in UAE has had its unique difficulties and issues. For instance, the public sector’s employment is primarily tied to cultural alignments, which dictate the jobs appropriate for citizens (job seekers). As observed by Mellahi (2007) and Al-Ali (2014), the conditions for the job, any associated social interactions, and systems for reporting are afflicted to the cultural status of that employee. This is much different from what happens in other cultures of the world (Al-Oraimi, 2004; Metcalfe, 2009).
Additionally, a range of aspects has contributed to the establishment of the workplace in the UAE. Usually, the role of government in UAE is quite vicious and significant. Government develops its citizenry, giving rise to numerous institutions committed to developing and handling human resources (Abubakar, 2014). Secondly, UAE thrives on a market economy that has helped develop, nurture, and promote the country’s human resources. Thirdly, the UAE labor market is characterized by evident competition between the organizations, which pursue to meet their clientele demands and preferences; thereby compelling these organizations to develop and adopt new, appropriate, efficient and innovative approaches of HRM (Abubakar, 2014). Fourthly, as described in the background, UAE has not being spared by globalization and its rapid developments, particularly for communications and technologies, which have facilitated modern and efficient HRM.
Markedly, the work values as depicted in the UAE labor force are significantly different from those depicted by the West, Europe, and Africa. They are evidently conformed to local culture (Al-Oraimi, 2004). For instance, kin and tribal associations thrive intensely and influence the hierarchies of numerous organizations. McSweeney (2015) one of the contemporary theorists argue that this distinct national cultural feature has had a notable influence on the behavior of the institution’s employees. The employee’s behavior immensely draws from the Islamic religion and traditional Arabic norms (Bjerke and Al-Meer, 2011).
Staff Turnover in the United Arab Emirates
Around the globe, organizations are continually competing for larger proportions of the market share. Nonetheless, this relies on staff loyalty and ensuring lower staff turnover incidences coupled with a culture of hard work, accountability, superior quality, in addition to growing productivity (Al-Kahtani, 2013). For organizations in UAE, it will be vital to explore both the public and private sectors. Despite that the labor force received minimum benefits in the public sector, these scantily satisfy their remunerations needs. The private sector, on the other hand, offers high remunerations; however job insecurity is quite high (Al-Kahtani, 2013). For these concerns, staff turnover incidences occur more often in the private sector as compared with the public sector. Turnover rates also differ amongst industries and sub-sectors. For instance, they occur differently for either the service or manufacturing industries. Organizations, employers and business managements as posted by Al-Oraimi (2004) have failed to adequately emphasize the concern of turnover, thereby ostensibly not realizing the adverse consequences, especially on their performance and productivity.
Bayt (2012) conducted a study on the factors affecting employee motivation in UAE. The study findings indicated that 11% of the country’s employed labor force was anticipating to move within organizations, 30% persistently were searching for better employment opportunities, 29% were determined on departing from their current organizations. Additionally, the study also illustrated the factors affecting staff turnover. They were employee attitudes and individual factors (Kyndt et al., 2009; Bayt, 2012); work appraisal and evaluations (Bayt, 2012; Kuvaas, 2013); inadequate recognition and motivation schemes (Bayt, 2012; Poon, 2016); insufficient professional and personal development (Bayt, 2012; Shaw, Duffy and Stark, 2013); inadequate and ineffective communication (Apker et al., 2009; Bayt, 2012) and increased turnover by organizations (Bayt, 2012; Heneman and Judge, 2015). Indeed, these statistics showed a poor situation of the UAE’s workplace. It should be addressed through efficient policy and practice initiatives. |
Lincoln (1985) perceived management of an organization through the systems theory. He noted that an organization, just as a system, will exist and operate in a system entailing a range of components associated to pursue an identified goal. If a single component fails or is inadequate, the entire system is incapacitated too. Essentially, through the ‘system theory’, such a system will possess integrals such as inputs/ resources (capital, human, financial, marketing), processes (strategizing, planning, operations, control), outputs (goods, services), and lastly aftermaths (organizational productivity, consumer/ stakeholder well-being). Ideally, the systems theory describes management as procedural and pursuing organizational succession in all spheres (Harris and Fitzpatrick, 2009; Lincoln, 1985). As such, an organization must align entirely all its wits, resources, and strategies for the system to prosper. Notably, the study identifies these aspects as staff retention, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction as being integral components that must be systematically aligned through a continued planning and enriched practice.
Auxiliary, the ‘chaos theorists’ articulate that with continued operationalization, a system will gradually generate complexity and devaluation, and in the process, will be more unpredictable (Byrne, 1999). Inherently, there will be a growing need to support the system, including replacement, restructuring and improved infrastructure. With the ‘chaos theory’, the complexity will grow to an un-tolerable level, thus, will elicit breakdown, splitting, collaboration with other complex systems, or entire collapse. In the presence of effective planning and management, Katz (2000) noted that effective management is a feasible tool when curbing the uncertainty of what managerial or planning practices are to be applied in organizational operations and when to apply them. Such practice calls for a repetitive managerial and planning procedure (Byrne, 1999) when tackling turnover. The theory described the fundamentality of efficiently handling the human capital and the eventual performance. Clearly, the ‘chaos theory’ illustrates that successional and efficient HRM coupled with other policies interchanges with organizational practices as progressed by Santorin (2004).
Objectives of the Study
The study set to evaluate the contribution of human resource practices on UAE’s public organization’s capacity to retain their employees.To achieve this the study also had to;
1. Evaluate how organizational culture and HRM practices influence staff retention in UAE’s public organizations
2. Assess the challenge facing UAE’s public organizations with respect to the incidence of higher turnover rates
3. Determine how organizational commitment, employment satisfaction, and organizational leadership practice influence staff retention in public organizations of UAE
Research QuestionsThe following research questions will guide the research;
1. What is the contribution of HRM practices to public organizations in maintaining a committed, skilled, and talented workforce
2. What issues and/or challenges face public organizations, thereby influencing their departures
3. Is there any contribution of effective HRM practices to attaining organizational commitment and employment satisfaction
The study settled on the Dubai Emirate. Reasonably, this study area has shown remarkable advancement in technology, use of internet and associated technologies (Alrawi and Sabry, 2009). The emirate has recently attained notable economic growth (Wouter and Peter, 2007). It significantly depicts the current dynamic global marketplace. Organizations operating and based in Dubai Emirate have persistently being predisposed to the up surging global flaws in HRM practices and associated concerns. As a result of the increasing globalization and its consequential implications for industry and markets.Dubai has seen the growing migration of both international and national labor, declining levels of maintaining staff, higher incidences of staff turnovers, and conflicts arising amid organizational cultures at the workplace (Iqbal Anjum, 2008). Evaluating HRM practices in Dubai emirate is vital for the present study. The study area has various organizations in the public sector, which depict the resultant differences in HRM practices. The differences are often misconstrued, misunderstood, and habitually under-researched. Thereby, this research is necessary for providing novel empirical findings and inferences, especially relevant to the ability of organizations to ensure job satisfaction, thus, the resultant reduced employee turnover.Further, the present study will have both a theoretical and practical significance. It will advance the understanding and knowledge of how essential it is for public organizations in UAE, especially Dubai Emirate to retain their committed, skilled, and talented workforce. The outcomes of the study may contribute a vital component for scholars, practitioners, and policymakers. Especially, in designing strategies and aligning efforts in enhancing reduced turnover rates, organizational commitment, redesigning working conditions, and employment satisfaction amongst the workforce.
The research will be limited to government workplaces, targeting few volunteering public organizations in Dubai Emirate. It will also be limited to investigating only the subject matter – HRM practices and their influence on an organization’s capacity to retain its staff.
Expected Research Outcomes
The research anticipates finding distinct relationships between the above-mentioned variables with employee retention. Further, it is expected that from the findings the study will make inferences and recommendations for best HRM practice, policy implications and areas for further research focus.Further, it is expected that the research’s theoretical and practice implications will describe the current state of the labor market and provide a practical benchmark to organizational managers and policy makers in the public sector. The inferences made will help these key stakeholders identify and initiate measures, which will enable the organization’s workplace to avail a more pleasant experience for its employees; thereby reduce the turnover rates for these public organizations. Moreover, the outcomes are purposed to better apprise policy on such aspects as skills promotion, employee recruitment, efficient and sustainable hiring and retaining processes and eventual institutional development for the public sector. |
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