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Reflective Portfolio And Leadership Critique
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Write an essay about the Reflective Portfolio and Leadership Critique.
In order to complete my final project, I have participated in various activities and completed several assignments. I have completed variety of reflective journal entries throughout this period of time. In Unit 1, there are 9 articles have been reviewed. The journal one is develop by David Boud (2001), which helps to promote reflection on experience. The second journal is about the practice of leadership in the messy world of organization developed by Jean-Louis et al. (2010). Third journal is developed by Anca (2015), which is about influence and leadership. In the fourth journal of Unit 1, Boas and Galit (2005) have developed a life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. In the next journal, we have come to know different behavioral model of a leader developed by Angela. The next two journals are developed by Brockbamk (Chapter 3 and 4), which describe about reflective learning. In the next journal developed Georgeet al. (2007), we have come to know about authentic leadership. From the last journal we come to know about the nature of managerial work.
In the Unit 2, the first journal article we have discussed about the impact of leadership style on organization commitment. This journal article is developed by Sabiret al. (2011). In the next stage, we have analyzed the journal article develop by Zhu et al. (2016). This article is about the transmission of Moral Identity and Moral Attentiveness. We have analyzed how to give strength-based feedback from the journal article developed by Gallagher (2007). From another research work developed by Hrams and Roebuck (2010), we have come to understand that teaching is the art and craft of giving and receiving feedback. I have come to understand about five big ideas about leadership strategy form the research work done by Allio (2009). In another research work developed by Jogulu (2010), we have come to know about culturally-linked leadership styles. There are also two another research works have been discussed in Unit 2. One of the research works is developed by Livingston (1969) and another one is developed by Velsor and Leslie (2005). From the research, work developed Livingston (1969) I have come to understand that leaders need to give special attention on employees on the first year because this is the time, when expectations are developed.
In the unit 3, the first journal that we have come across is about managerial leadership developed by Yuki (1989). I have come to know about transformational leadership from the journal article developed by Bass and Steidlmeier (1999). In the next journal we came to know about the inside story of a concentration camp. This story was described by a survivor of the concentration camp.From another research work developed by Yukl (1999), we have come to know about conceptual weakness in transformational and charismatic leadership style. In the next stage, we have analyzed the difference between transformational and transactional leadership from the journal developed by Jmaes and Ogbonna (2013). On the contrary, from the journal article developed byPrice (2002), we have to come understand the ethics related with transformational leadership. The next research paper developed by Thomas and Bendoly (2009), we have come to know about the limits to effective leadership style and tactics of the critical incident interventions.Bernnis and Thomas (2002) had developed crucibles of leadership approach. In the last journal of unit 3 is has been discussed how leadership approach can help to bounce back from adverse situations. This journal work is developed by Margolis and Stoltz (2009).
The fist article discussed in the unit 4 is about ethical and unethical leadership. This article has been developed by Brown and Mitchell (2010). The next article developed by Collins (2001), which provides the triumph of humility and fierce resolve. The last journal article discussed in unit 4 is developing by Graf and Dick (2011). It helps to analyze the ideals and the counter ideals of leadership values and their impact of followers.
In the unit 5, the first journal article helps me to understand the important aspects of a Curriculum vita (CV). It helps me to understand, the major points that need to be considered while developing personal CV. From another journal article developed by Collins (1999), we come to understand about how to turn goals into results. The final journal article of unit 5 developed by Lencioni (2002), we have found that cooperate value statement can do more harm rather than good. This research work helps us to find out ways to solve these problems.
From the journal work developed by Boud (2001) it has been found that there are many reason for which we write journals. We can try to capture our feelings, record an event, try to explore our feelings though our writing in journals. There are various reasons for which we use journal articles in our learning reflection. It deepens the quality of learning, in the form of critical thinking. It helps us to understand my own learning processas a learner,. It fosters creative and reflective interaction within a team. There are various occasions have been found where reflection can be implemented. They are such as refection on the anticipation of events, refection in the mindset action and reflection of after events. In the article developed by Jean-Louis et al. (2010), the leadership activity has been examined as a practical exercise that focus on dialectical, situated, collective and dynamic approach. From the research work developed by Anca (2015), I come to understand that leadership is not only the process of influencing flowers but it also helps to determine the actions in order to achieve goals. It has been found from this research article that after analyzing the essence of leadership, managers always try to develop effective communication system so that organizational objectives can be fulfilled.
From the research it has been found that authentic leaders do not fake about their leadership. They do not take the role of leadership or any kind of leadership activity for personal honor, status or personal benefit. They lead the team for conviction to fulfill a mission (Northouse 2014). I have come to understand from the journal developed by Angela that, leadership is the attitude of a person, where that person leads activities towards the common goal. The major difference between mangers and leaders is that manager focus on structure while leaders focus on peoples. As Popper and Mayseless (2013) mentioned that, leaders act as innovators and managers act as administrators.
Form the research work developed by Brockbamk, it has been discussed that the structure of an organization needs to encourage learning and need to include openness. I come to understand from this research work that learning needs to be rewarded both financially and socially. From another research work developed by Brockbamk, it has been found that a learner needs to construct their own learning style depending on the social context.From the research work developed George et al. (2007) I have discovered the importance of authentic approach of leadership. I have found form this research work that everyone has the capability empower and inspire others. In order to do that, we must have to devote ourselves to our personal growth and development as an authentic leader.
In the unit 2, from the research work developed by Sabir et al. (2011) I have come to understand that presently the workforce of an organization is more educated, aware and knowledgeable. They always expect to have better value from an organization. On the contrary, an organization always wants to better utilize those values to maximize benefits. I have found that, leadership style has impact on the organizational commitment of employees. As Peterson et al. (2012) mentioned that, leadership style can help to change the organizational culture that reflects the employee value in the organization. From the research work developed by Zhu et al. (2016) I have found that moral identity and moral alternativeness of an ethical leader has direct connection with the perception of employees about ethical leadership. As Schalock and Verdugo (2012) stated that moral identity refers to the extent to which peoples believe themselves to be ethical. From the cognitive theory of social learning, I come to know that primarily ethical leaders influence followers through modeling process. As Schyns and Schilling (2013) mentioned that Behavioral model is one of the most utilized tools of leaders that can help leaders to transit their values, attitudes and behaviors to the team members. From the research work developed by Hrams and Roebuck (2010), it has been found that the method of evaluating the performance of both managers and employees can be referred as feedback. As Daft (2014) mentioned that, the feedback of the workplace must has to be aligned with the workplace behavior with the overall goal of an organization or a team.
The research work developed by Allio (2009), it has been found that there are five big ideas related with leadership. They are such as good leaders must have good character. Leaders need to understand that there is no best way to lead. As Du et al. (2013) mentioned that, leaders must need to collaborate with followers. As Johnston and Marshall (2013) mentioned that, leaders are self-made. They need to understand that adaptability make longevity possible. From the research work developed by Livingston, it has been found that special attention must have to be given to employees in the first year, because in this time expectation has been set. Form this research work I come to understand thatone of the major characteristics of good quality leader is the capability to create high performance expectations that the team members are able to fulfill (Singh 2013). Managers and leaders who are not able to develop such kind of expectations are not being able to motivate their employees. Hence, consequently productivity of the team often hampers. As Tannenbaum et al. (2013) stated that, if managers have low expectation form the subordinates, then they cannot avoid the flow of depressing cycle within the team by just merely hiding the feelings from the subordinates. If leaders have low expectation from the followers, it becomes virtually impossible for the team to perform well. If managers have low expectation, then subordinates eventually get influenced by it, as negative messages are communicated within the team unintentionally, without any conscious intention (Van Knippenberg and Sitkin 2013).
In unit 3, I have come to know about different leadership approach from the journal developed by Yukl. They are such as power-influence approach, behavior approach, trait approach and situational approach. There are various leadership theories such as situational leadership theory, leader substitute theory and normative decision theory helps me to understand that no individual approach is suitable for business operation of an organization. Depending on the situation and type of work, a leader needs to change the leadership approach (Von Krogh et al. 2012). However, the research work developed by Bass and Steidlmeier (1999), has given rise to conflicts related with ethics, characteristics and authenticity of transformational leadership behaviors.
In unit 4, from the research work developed by Brown and Mitchell (2010), I come to know that there are three emerging trends that can be related with ethical leadership. They are such as identification, congruence and emotions. There are theories discussed in this research work that helps me to understand the impact of ethical leadership. From the social exchange theory, I come to understand that individuals are obliged to show ethical behavior if they believe another person has been fair or ethical to them. As Yukl (2012) mentioned that ethical behavior of a leader can influence team members and refrain them destructive behavior. From another research work developed by Collins, I come to know about the level 5 hierarchy of leadership. Level 1 is recognized as highly capable individuals, level 2 is contributing team members, level 3 is component managers, level 4 is effective leader and level 5 is executive (Dyer 2013). From another research work developed by Rolf Van Dick (2011), I come to understand that both negative and positive value orientations exhibits great amount of impact on individual responses towards the leaders.
I have come to understand about the importance of career improvement plan, form the learning activity done in unit 4. From the first journal article of unit 5, I have come to know about the important content of a Curriculum Vitae (CV). In order to write a personal CV, it is required to adopt positive language and adopt confident tone. I need to provide evidence of the skills I have acquired from various jobs. As Aryee et al. (2012) mentioned that, the major sections of a CV are like personal details, career profile, education qualification and work experience. There are some additional skills such as foreign languages; computing skills and keyboard skills need to be added in the CV. Before submitting a CV for a job, I need to check that whether my CV matches the job description or not. From the second journal article developed by Collins (1999), I have come to understand about how to turn goals into results. I have come to know that, if a person wants to transform a company’s goals into reality, it is required to introduce new managerial device, which is simple and effective.From another research work done by Lencioni (2002), I come to understand about different types of organizational values. They are such as integrity, communication, excellence and respect. I have come to understand that developing consensus is about imposing sound beliefs, set of fundamentals on a board of people (Judge and Piccolo 2014).
After analyzing all the journal articles, I have come to understand that expectation, attitude and behavior of leaders towards their followers have significant impact on the performance of a team. I have analyzed that, in majority of the cases a significant gap between team members and team leaders is a substantial cause of poor performance. I come to understand that leadership style has huge impact on the organizational commitment. Positive behavior of managers or leader towards their subordinates increases employee engagement within the organization, which will lead to increase commitment of employees. I have also come to understand that depending on the organizational culture, leaders need to change their leadership style.
Form this research analysis, I have found that there are mainly two type of leadership approach, which suits my leadership style. They are such as transformational leadership and transactional leadership style. In transactional leadership style, an exchange of relationship occurs between leaders and followers. I believe that, exchange of information can help to conduct a task in appropriate manner. Hence, transactional leadership style suites me well. On the other hand,in transformational leadership, leaders sacrifice their own interest over the group interest. It has been analyzed that a transformational leader has some basic characteristics. They are such as courage, openness, ability of visionary, learning and values. I personally think that, I have all these characteristics of a transformational leader. Hence, I conclude that depending on the situation, I will change my leadership approach from transactional leadership to transformational leadership.
In this section, an essay has been developed in order to summarize the resource of the leadership. As Zhu et al. (2012) mentioned that, leadership is the characteristics of a person or an organization to guide other towards a specific goal. Various viewpoints about leadership has been developed in past which are contrasting to each other. For example, dissimilar approaches of leadership have been taken by different countries of East (Asia) and Waste (Europe). It has been found that in the last decade one of the major contributors of psychology towards business is to determine the key traits for acknowledged leaders (Chaudhry and Javed 2012). Leadership studies have been developed involving situation, trait, power, vision, values, behavior and intelligence of different individuals. There are various leadership theories, concepts and models have been discussed in this section. They are such as situational leadership, transformational leadership and transactional leadership and leadership as personality trait. It has been analyzed in this study that why these theories, models and concepts are important in this field of work.
RyamondCattell has developed a personality assessment in 1954 with the help of Leadership potential equation (Spillane 2012). Depending on the equation, military leaders had analyzed the personality traits that potential leaders must possess. The major traits of potential leaders are such as emotional stability, dominance, enthusiasm, self-assurance, compulsiveness and social boldness (Mayer et al. 2012). An active leader must have the capability to tolerate frustration. As Moynihan et al. (2012) mentioned that, leaders must have the psychological maturity to deal with any critical condition. Leaders have to be decisive and competitive, which will help them to overcome obstacles. According to Allison and Goethals (2013), leaders must have to be assertive in their thinking style and as well as in their behavior top handle followers. As leaders have high amount of influence on the followers, they has to be enthusiastic, active, and energetic. As Belbin (2012) mentioned that, leaders must have the sense of responsibility. With the increase of competition in the market, it has been becomecrucial to complete a task within time. As Bello (2012) stated that, a responsible manager or leaders always try to influence the followers so that complete the task within given period of time. Good leaders always have to be practical, neutral and fact oriented.
All these above discussed factors are the basic traits that a leader must possess. As Cavazotte et al. (2012) mentioned that present day leaders have to possess some other traits to lead followers towards a new direction. As Bryman (2013) opined that, leaders must have the capability to see the future. They must be able to convince the followers about their visions for improvement. With the increase of growth of an organization, it has become perquisite for a leader to work for long hours. They also have travel several hours every day for business purpose. As ÄŒerne et al. (2013) argued that, these two factors have become major obstacles for a present day leader. Hence, a leader must have to posses’ high energy level. In the rapid changing world, due to overload of information, it has become impossible for an individual to know everything. For this reason, leaders in present days have to learn to give value to intuition. They need to trust their instinct while taking crucial decisions. In order to conduct a task effectively, leaders have to empower other so that they can take crucial decisions in the absence of the leader. As Chhokar et al. (2013) mentioned that, in order to conduct a project efficiently team leaders need to emphasize on teamwork. An environment needs to be developed within the team so that everyone can express his or her point of view. Lastly, it can be stated that leaders have to be charismatic. As Choudhary et al. (2013) mentioned that, charismatic leaders are able develop strong emotional bonding with the followers. A charismatic leader has the vision to unite the whole group. Charismatic leaders always motivate their followers to achieve organizational objectives, which will ultimately lead them to a brighter future.
There is various type of leadership styles exit in present day business. As Galegher et al. (2014) argued that each leadership style has its own advantage and disadvantage. Depending on the culture and working environment of an organization, it is required to find out which leadership style fits best to the organization. As Den Hartog and Belschak (2012) mentioned that, many organizations offer several leadership styles within its working environment. Depending on the significance of the task and departmental needs, leaders have to change their style of leadership. There are mainly five type of leadership styles are used in most of the organizations. They are such as autocratic, servant leadership Laissez-Faire, Participative, Transactional and Transformational (García-Morales et al. 2012).
With the help of autocratic leadership style leaders take decisions solely. They do not accept input from any other persons. As García-Morales (2012) mentioned that, in autocratic leadership style, leaders have the total authority to take decisions and imply their will on the followers. No individual has the authority to challenge the decisions of autocratic leaders. It has been found that organizations of countries such as Cuba and North Korea operate under the autocratic leadership style. As Grant (2012) mentioned that employees who require close supervision become beneficial from autocratic leadership style. Laissez-Faire leadership style is contrasting to autocratic leadership style, which lacks direct supervision and fails to provide regular feedback to the employees under supervision (Honts et al. 2012). Laissez-Faire leadership style can be applicable for highly experienced and trained employees who require little supervision. However, Johnson (2013) argued that, in Laissez-Faire leadership style managers do not provide any effort for improvement of employees. It increases lack of control, poor production and increasing cost.
Robert K. Greenleaf has developed the concept of servant-leadership. As Levin (2012) stated that, in this leadership approach, servant-leaders have to act as servant first. Servant-leaders always have the intention to serve team members and their organizations. Their conscious choice aspire them to lead a team. Servant-type leaders are drastically different from other types of leaders. In all other type of leadership style, highest priority is on task completion. On the other hand, the major priority of servant-leadership is to fulfill the needs and requirements of team members (Mannix et al. 2013). They mainly concentrate on the well-being and growth of employees. While traditional leadership approach focuses on accumulation and exercise of power in order to reach the top of the organization pyramid. In this leadership style, leaders like to share their power with their followers. They put the needs of employees first and help them to improve their performance at maximum level.
There is also another leadership style has been used in various organizations, named as participative leadership style. As Metcalf and Benn (2013) mentioned that participative leadership style is also known as democratic leadership style. Participative leadership style can boost up the morale of employees as they can contribute in the decision-making process. As Judge and Piccolo (2014) stated that, when a company tries to employ change within its organizational process, it must implement participative leadership approach. It will help employees to accept changes easily. As Moynihan (2012) argued that, participative leadership style has to face challenges when organizations need to make within a short period. In order to conduct a task effectively, managers often take transactional approach of leadership. Transactional leaders provide rewards and punishment to fellow team members depending on their performance. In this case scenario, managers and leaders have developed predetermined goals for their employees. Employees agree to follow the direction of leaders in order to meet those goals. Managers have the power to review the results of the team members and provide them required trainings so that they can meet the target (Judge and Piccolo 2014).
There is another leadership style has been used in various organizations, which is known as transformational leadership style. As Metcalf and Benn (2013) mentioned that transformational leadership style depends highly on effective communication development from management in order to meet the goal. In this leadership style, leaders motivate their team members with the help of high communication and visibility. As Grant (2012) mentioned that, style of leadership requires a high amount of involvement of management so that goals can be met. In this leadership style leaders focus on the larger objective of the organization and hand over smaller tasks to accomplish goals.
From the above analysis, it has been understood that with the increase of competition in the market, leaders have to face various critical situations. In order to deal with different critical situations, a person or an organization cannot rely on anyone leadership style. Situational leadership styles seem to be appropriate in this situation (Choudhary et al. 2013). In the 1950s, various management theorists from the Ohio state University had developed a series of research works in order to find out whether leaders should be more relationship or task oriented. It has been found from this research work that no leadership approach is perfectly suitable in one condition. As Singh (2013) mentioned that leaders should change their leadership style in accordance to the situation and influence their followers to do so. This concept has been taken from the Blachard and Hershey’s model of Situational leadership.
Effective analyses of these leadership theories and practices have major impact on the personal leadership experience. Development of appropriate leadership style helps to deal with different conflicts of an organization. It has been found that appropriate leadership style helps to mitigate leadership style in four major ways. They are such as right timing, knowing the limitations, respecting the differences and effective ways to handle tension (Belbin 2012). It has been found that employees develop unnecessary conflict within organizations, which have impact on the overall organizational performance. Hence, it is the responsibility of the leader to mitigate conflicts. the best time to solve conflict when leaders have enough evidence about the wrongdoings of employees, which affecting their performance. Hence, it has been identified from these theories that leader is the person who talk with employees about their issues and help them to mitigate those issues. Leaders also need to understand the limits of their employees. As Van Knippenberg and Sitkin (2013) mentioned that, conflict can become much more complex and uncontrollable if leaders don’t understand the boundaries and limitations of their employees. Leaders need to understand the reason behind the issues of the employees. As Singh (2013) stated that, leaders need to identify the behavioral tendencies of team members that trigger their behavioral shift. It also has been analyzed in major cases that lack of self-awareness of employees can give rise to conflicts. Hence, leaders need to arrange appropriate training program so that behavior and communication skills of employees can be improved (Mannix et al. 2013).
Leaders need to respect the unique cultural and racial issues of employees. They also need to provide respect and value to the feelings and thoughts of their followers. As Van Knippenberg and Sitkin (2013) mentioned that, leaders should listen to the advice of their team members before taking any crucial decision rather than imposing their influence on employees. Engaging employees more with the decision-making procedure can help to solve conflicts in effective manner. As Choudhary et al. (2013) argued that, most often leaders have to those tasks, that other peoples do not like to do. As a leader, it is required to develop the capability to deal with conflicts.
It has been found that the democratic style of leadership has affected my personal leadership style mostly. As Mannix et al. (2013) stated that, democratic leadership style has collegial and very open approach to run a team. In this approach of leadership, the leader discussed about the situation openly with all the team members. Every team member has the authority to give his or her point of view. In the rapidly changing business environment, where a very little factorcan be taken constant, it is tough for a leader to take all the decisions solely. Hence, in order to take right decisions, it has become utterly important for team leaders to take advice from the team members. As Belbin (2012) stated that, in this type of critical condition, team leaders have to think about every option for improvement in order to keep the team fromfalling out of date. With the help of democratic leadership style, a person becomes capable to facilitate conversation and encourage other to share their point of view. When the condition of an organization changes frequently, this leadership style can offer a great deal of flexibility in order to adopt better ways of doing things. As Mannix et al. (2013) mentioned that democratic leadership style cam bring the best from an experienced and professional team. It can help to capitalize the skills and resources of all the team members, which can be helpful to conduct a job.
There are certain fields of works in which democratic leadership style best fits. They are such as education, service industry, consulting firms, advertising and designing industry. As Choudhary et al. (2013) mentioned that, sharing new ides help to maintain creativity in the working environment. It helps to create new designs and concepts. In case of service industry, gathering new ides help to meet the changing customer demands (Bryman 2013). Form various theories related with leadership, it has been analyzed that there are certain ways in which personal leadership style can be improved. They are such as effective communication development, discussing with team members, commitment, respecting idea of others. Development of effective communication system within the organization helps to develop effective flow of information within the team. The leader needs to develop open discussion with the team members. On the other hand, it is the responsibility of the team leader to make sure that, the topics of discussion always remain aligned with the objective of the organization. In democratic leadership style, a leader may get confused with the different ideas and suggestions given by team members. It make hard for the team leader to commit for one specific decision (Belbin 2012). However, when the time of action actually arrives, the leaders have to take the decision with conviction.
In conclusion, it can be stated that there are various leadership styles such as autocratic leadership, democratic leadership and servant-leadership can be used to conduct a project or task within a given period. All these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the situation, a leader needs to change his or her leadership style. There are some common personality traits have been discussed in this essay, that an active leader must possess. They are such as emotional stability, dominance, enthusiasm, self-assurance, compulsiveness and social boldness. All these personality traits are considered as the basic traits of a great leader. However, with the increase of fluctuation, there are some additional characteristics that a leader of present day must have to poses. A leader needs to take decisions after taking advices from fellow team members. A leader must have the capability to deal with risks while taking decisions. Leader need to respect the ideas given by team members and provide them empowerment so that they can take crucial decisions in the absence of leaders. Finally, the leader needs to take care of the well fare of the fellow team members.
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