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Analysis Of Articles Corporate Finance

  0 Downloads   |   26 Pages 6,472 Words   |   Published Date: 26/09/2017

Question:

Discuss about the Analysis of Articles Corporate Finance.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

The current study focuses on three different articles on three different articles on corporate finance. The first article deals with the analysis of the dynamic models that plays an important factor in the field of corporate finance. The study also helps in understanding the influences of different methods that inspects the performance of techniques devised for inspecting diverse econometric biases in the dynamic panel models. The present research paper therefore examines the statistical characters of seven substitute techniques for evaluation of the dynamic panel forms. The research study employs the quantitative research methodology and utilizes varied computational mechanisms for approximating dynamic panel models. The study also applies different evaluation techniques for the purpose of analysis of the performance of the estimators when applied to diverse corporate finance data. In addition to this, the article 2 concentrates on investigation of the effects of corporate governance during the period of worldwide financial crisis on the performance of financial corporations. The consequences of the study disclose the fact that the stricter scheme of monitoring by the boards as well as investors is associated to the overall procedure of fining the executives of the companies after the period of financial crisis. The third article aims to depict the influence of market microstructure on corporate financing decisions. The research can help the administrators could be aware of the implication of information’s in escalating value as well as demand of the share. However, the researcher can draw suitable conclusion concerning the influence of illiquidity in stock market. The researcher has employed different theoretical models and calculation to evaluate the data and provide a tactful outcome, which could be used by companies in US.  The articles selected for the study is primarily selected from the A* ranked journals that can be categorized as the academic empirical journal having the ‘herdsa impact factor”. The herdsa impact factor helps in devising solutions to different learning practice. The present study on three different articles from journals of corporate finance emphasizes on different objective enumeration along with statistical and mathematical analysis of the data collected from pre-existing statistical data by utilizing diverse computational mechanisms. Thereafter, the study discusses the outcomes of the study in the research finding section in order to investigate the implications of the outcomes. Furthermore, the present report also presents a critical evaluation of each article by elucidating the significance along with the strength, weakness and limitations of the study.

Summary

 

Reference

 

The article summary follows the APA style referencing

1.      Gattonweb.uky.edu. (2016). Gatton College of Business and Economics - University of Kentucky. [online] Available at: http://gattonweb.uky.edu [Accessed 27 Jul. 2016].

 

Article classification

Article Classification: Academic empirical

Journal ranking (ABDC quality journal listing)

A*

Impact factor

HERDSA factor

Aim/Purpose of article

The aim of the present research study is to critically evaluate the dynamic panel models that play a significant role in different areas of corporate finance and the arrangement of diverse fixed effects as well as lagged dependent variables those results in econometric biases (Gattonweb.uky.edu, 2016). The purpose of the current study is therefore to examine the methods that can counteract the identified biases and to investigate different methodologies with different datasets having normally distributed variables. In addition to this, the present study also intends to test the performance of the methodologies with different data on corporate finance. The paper therefore inspects the statistical characteristics of seven substitute methods for the purpose of estimation of the dynamic panel models (Gattonweb.uky.edu, 2016).

(If an empirical paper) research methodology employed (qual, quant, mixed methods); sampling strategy and sample size employed; context of study eg location, industry; method of data collection methods employed; method of analysis employed.

-          Research Methodology-

The present research study adopts the quantitative research procedure for examination of the performance of different estimators. The research study employs the quantitative research methodology for conducting the study. The quantitative research methodology refers to the methodical and empirical examination of different evident occurrences.

The current study stresses on different objective enumeration along with statistical and mathematical analysis of the data collected from pre-existing statistical data by utilizing diverse computational mechanisms. The present study analyses seven different econometric methods for approximating dynamic panel models.

-          Sampling Strategy and sample size-

The study comprises of the 19140 firm years selected from 638 different corporations where each of the firm is having 30 years of data. The current study only selects initial 30 observations for each of the corporations.

In this study, the researcher uses the purposive non-probabilistic sampling with the intention and purpose of selecting the required quantitative data. The process of selection is based on the purpose of the study and judgement of the researcher. The present study also uses the process of data cleaning for eliminating the unwanted data and to arrive at the requisite data required for the present study.

-          Context of the study-

Location- United States

Methods of data collection-

The current study uses the secondary data that are collected from different secondary sources comprising of pre-existing data collected for some other purpose.

Method of evaluation- The present research study uses the Monte Carlo analysis of seven different mechanisms that are used for the purpose of estimation of different dynamic panel models based on different data sets possessing various known features. The present study makes use of the Stata process -“reg” in order to generate different coefficient estimation as the method of Ordinary Least Squares excludes the panel framework of the data that generally leads to an upward biased coefficient approximation for dependent variable. Again, the study also makes use of the Stata process “xtreg,fe” in order to produce different estimates. In addition to this, the present study also employs different advanced estimators that utilize different substitute mechanisms to avert diverse biases related to the fixed effects (FE). Furthermore, the current study also employs AB’s lagged independent variables to meet in order to instrument for the identified first difference of the lag. Again, in this particular study, the researcher makes use of BB’s method GMM that approximates two equation procedure of the regression in stages and in the recognized first difference. Furthermore, this particular study also employs the LD4 that is the four periods long differencing that reflects the execution of the estimator. The study also applies the longest differencing that refers to a substitute adaptation of objective panel estimator. However, “the Least Squares of the dummy variables correction” (LSDVC) process rectifies different biased FE approximated coefficients by utilizing an estimate of the bias in the short panel calculated from the data of each firm. Different methods can be examined on different small datasets that are normally distributed.

In addition to this, the study also uses different parameterizations in a bid to generate simulated data. The estimation of the generated data sets is carried out by using estimation models that uses seven different methodologies.

Conclusions drawn by researchers

Research Findings- The findings of baseline simulations focuses on different major points. Different lagged dependent variable can be approximated by for different iid or else the Compustat variables. The reports of estimations of different simulated datasets differ from that of the data collected from the iid data that are acquired randomly by employing the variance-covariance matrix. The results of the study reveal the fact that the accurateness of the estimation of different lagged coefficient remains same to a large extent at the time of replacement of the independent variables from iid with different variables from Compustat. The current study analyses the performance of different methods by associating it to the corporate finance data where dependent variables can be grouped and the independent variables can be correlated or else missing. The outcomes of the study reveal the fact that different properties of the data considerably affect the performance of different estimators.

Critical Insight

Significance

Significance of the article in relation to the topic generally, other articles in the literature, other articles in this bibliography assignment etc

The present study helps gives a deep insight regarding the influences of different methods that examines the performance of methods devised for checking diverse econometric biases in the dynamic panel models. The study also applies different evaluation techniques for the purpose of analysis of the performance of the estimators when applied to diverse corporate finance data.

Strengths

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeating any author’s suggestions.

The study analyses different methods that can counteract different econometric biases that are present in the dynamic panel models. The report also analyses the performance of different estimators that checks the performance of the different estimators that can counter the econometric biases. Therefore, the present study reveals the potential significance of selection of an appropriate method for estimation for dynamic panel models on corporate finance.

 

Weaknesses

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The study elucidates the significance of the estimation of the dynamic panel biases that can be related to the capital structure of a firm (Coles et al., 2012). The performance of estimators in different Monte Carlo Simulations might not be applicable for more intricate empirical analysis. The estimators such as the LSDVC require computer memory that makes the process of implementation complicated in cases of large bases of datasets. Again, the estimators also take into account different assumptions. Therefore, the violations of the specific assumptions can affect the overall performance of the estimators.

Limitations

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The use of different endogenous regressors as well as the second order correlation can compromise with different estimation methods that are again consistent with different theoretical concepts. Again, the data that are made available to the researcher do not always replicate all the relevant nature and characteristics of firms.

 
Summary

Reference

 

The article summary follows the APA style referencing

Repository.umac.mo. (2016). University of Macau Institutional Repository: Home. [online] Available at: http://repository.umac.mo [Accessed 27 Jul. 2016].

Repository.umac.mo. (2016). 

Article classification (academic conceptual, academic empirical)

Article Classification: Academic empirical

Journal ranking (ABDC quality journal listing)

A*

Impact factor

HERDSA factor

Aim/Purpose of article

The aim of the present research study is to critically evaluate the dynamic panel models that play a significant role in different areas of corporate finance and the arrangement of diverse fixed effects as well as lagged dependent variables those results in econometric biases. The purpose of the current study is therefore to examine the methods that can counteract the identified biases and to investigate different methodologies with different datasets having normally distributed variables. In addition to this, the present study also intends to test the performance of the methodologies with different data on corporate finance. The paper therefore inspects the statistical characteristics of seven substitute methods for the purpose of estimation of the dynamic panel models  (Repository.umac.mo., 2016).

(If an empirical paper) research methodology employed (qual, quant, mixed methods); sampling strategy and sample size employed; context of study eg location, industry; method of data collection methods employed; method of analysis employed.

-          Research Methodology-

The present research study adopts the quantitative research procedure for examination of the performance of different estimators. The research study employs the quantitative research methodology for conducting the study. The quantitative research methodology refers to the methodical and empirical examination of different evident occurrences.

The current study stresses on different objective enumeration along with statistical and mathematical analysis of the data collected from pre-existing statistical data by utilizing diverse computational mechanisms. The present study analyses seven different econometric methods for approximating dynamic panel models.

-          Sampling Strategy and sample size-

The study comprises of the 19140 firm years selected from 638 different corporations where each of the firm is having 30 years of data. The current study only selects initial 30 observations for each of the corporations.

In this study, the researcher uses the purposive non-probabilistic sampling with the intention and purpose of selecting the required quantitative data. The process of selection is based on the purpose of the study and judgement of the researcher. The present study also uses the process of data cleaning for eliminating the unwanted data and to arrive at the requisite data required for the present study.

-          Context of the study-

Location- United States

Methods of data collection-

The current study uses the secondary data that are collected from different secondary sources comprising of pre-existing data collected for some other purpose.

Method of evaluation- The present research study uses the Monte Carlo analysis of seven different mechanisms that are used for the purpose of estimation of different dynamic panel models based on different data sets possessing various known features. The present study makes use of the Stata process -“reg” in order to generate different coefficient estimation as the method of Ordinary Least Squares excludes the panel framework of the data that generally leads to an upward biased coefficient approximation for dependent variable. Again, the study also makes use of the Stata process “xtreg,fe” in order to produce different estimates. In addition to this, the present study also employs different advanced estimators that utilize different substitute mechanisms to avert diverse biases related to the fixed effects (FE). Furthermore, the current study also employs AB’s lagged independent variables to meet in order to instrument for the identified first difference of the lag. Again, in this particular study, the researcher makes use of BB’s method GMM that approximates two equation procedure of the regression in stages and in the recognized first difference. Furthermore, this particular study also employs the LD4 that is the four periods long differencing that reflects the execution of the estimator. The study also applies the longest differencing that refers to a substitute adaptation of objective panel estimator. However, “the Least Squares of the dummy variables correction” (LSDVC) process rectifies different biased FE approximated coefficients by utilizing an estimate of the bias in the short panel calculated from the data of each firm. Different methods can be examined on different small datasets that are normally distributed  (Repository.umac.mo., 2016).

In addition to this, the study also uses different parameterizations in a bid to generate simulated data. The estimation of the generated data sets is carried out by using estimation models that uses seven different methodologies.

Conclusions drawn by researchers

Research Findings- The findings of baseline simulations focuses on different major points. Different lagged dependent variable can be approximated by for different iid or else the Compustat variables. The reports of estimations of different simulated datasets differ from that of the data collected from the iid data that are acquired randomly by employing the variance-covariance matrix. The results of the study reveal the fact that the accurateness of the estimation of different lagged coefficient remains same to a large extent at the time of replacement of the independent variables from iid with different variables from Compustat. The current study analyses the performance of different methods by associating it to the corporate finance data where dependent variables can be grouped and the independent variables can be correlated or else missing. The outcomes of the study reveal the fact that different properties of the data considerably affect the performance of different estimators.

Critical Insight

Significance

Significance of the article in relation to the topic generally, other articles in the literature, other articles in this bibliography assignment etc

The present study helps gives a deep insight regarding the influences of different methods that examines the performance of methods devised for checking diverse econometric biases in the dynamic panel models. The study also applies different evaluation techniques for the purpose of analysis of the performance of the estimators when applied to diverse corporate finance data.

Strengths

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The study analyses different methods that can counteract different econometric biases that are present in the dynamic panel models. The report also analyses the performance of different estimators that checks the performance of the different estimators that can counter the econometric biases. Therefore, the present study reveals the potential significance of selection of an appropriate method for estimation for dynamic panel models on corporate finance.

 

Weaknesses

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The study elucidates the significance of the estimation of the dynamic panel biases that can be related to the capital structure of a firm. The performance of estimators in different Monte Carlo Simulations might not be applicable for more intricate empirical analysis. The estimators such as the LSDVC require computer memory that makes the process of implementation complicated in cases of large bases of datasets. Again, the estimators also take into account different assumptions. Therefore, the violations of the specific assumptions can affect the overall performance of the estimators.

Limitations

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The use of different endogenous regressors as well as the second order correlation can compromise with different estimation methods that are again consistent with different theoretical concepts. Again, the data that are made available to the researcher do not always replicate all the relevant nature and characteristics of firms.

 

Summary

Reference

 

The article summary follows the APA style referencing

 

Article classification (academic conceptual, academic empirical)

Article Classification: Academic empirical

Journal ranking (ABDC quality journal listing)

A*

Impact factor

HERDSA’s Factor

Aim/Purpose of article

The researcher mainly aims to portray the impact of market microstructure on corporate financing decisions. With the help of this research the managers could understand the significance of information’s in increasing value and demand of its stocks (Repository.umac.mo, 2016). 

(If an empirical paper) research methodology employed (qual, quant, mixed methods); sampling strategy and sample size employed; context of study eg location, industry; method of data collection methods employed; method of analysis employed.

Sampling strategy – The researcher mainly uses 40,301 firm-years for its observations from which only 4,984 have SEOs.

Location - The research is mainly conducted on NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ listed stocks, United States. 

Industry - The overall research mainly focuses on Stock Market industry

Methods of data collection - The data have been collected from combining SEO and SDC data from 1980 to 2000. In addition, the researcher has also collected data from NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ. Furthermore, the investor’s investment sentiment was derived from Jeffrey Wurgler, which has been used in the research to obtain relevant outcome. 

Method of evaluation – The research effectively uses market illiquidity and price informativeness to evaluate the variable of market microstructure. 

Context of the study – The researcher mainly wants to indentify the impact of market microfinance on

Method of analysis employed – The researcher has employed different theoretical models and calculation to evaluate the data and provide a tactful outcome, which could be used by companies in US. 

(If an empirical paper) research findings and conclusions drawn by researchers

The researcher mainly concluded illiquidity in market affects decision making process of manager’s. Moreover, it is also observed that SEO has more influence with stocks lying within K-Z index. Furthermore, it is also observed that managers with the help of SEO are able to enhance their price informativeness regarding market price movement.

In addition, the researcher also evaluates that increasing stock price informativeness, which mainly reduces the overall market illiquidity and help managers to make adequate decisions. Moreover, it is also evaluated that illiquidity before issue of shares increases SEO proceeds and increases selling of overpriced shares.

The researcher also evaluates that stocks that have low prices are prone to informative price structure, which might influence its price movements. In addition, researcher also portrays the significance of low stock price synchronicity on illiquidity of the stock market. Furthermore, the novice effectively suggests that measurement of illiquidity in the stock market could help investors make adequate investment decisions.    

Conclusions drawn by authors

The researcher with the help of this study is able to draw valid conclusion regarding the impact of illiquidity in stock market (Lehalle & Laruelle, 2013). Furthermore, it is also helps in depicting the price movement of small stocks with the help of effective SEO. In addition, the researcher effectively evaluates the price movement of informative and uninformative stocks. Moreover, the study could effectively help companies to identify the method to reduce illiquidity in their stock price movement. Lastly, with the help of market evaluation, companies are able to use compensation method support its share price movement.   

 Critical Insight

Significance

 

Furthermore, the overall research could help portray the significance of SEO in the capital market. Moreover, the study mainly contributes to the overall price movement analysis, which is being studied by market professionals. In addition, the study mainly helps investor and company to understand the significance of information and how it could reduce market illiquidity. Furthermore, the research could also help low stock priced companies to maintain adequate information flow to reduce illiquidity in their stocks. 

Moreover, the researcher has effectively used diffident models and authentic market data to understand the significance of informative stock price. In addition, the different approach has mainly helped other researchers to use the research outcome as a valid statement in their study. Furthermore, the study also helps in contributing to Market microstructure concept mentioned by King. The use authentic data from NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ has mainly helped in increasing viability of the overall research outcome. The overall calculations conducted in the research also help in bringing out viable result that could increase authenticity of the research.  

However, other researchers did not use different models and effective calculations to understand the significance of information on the stock price movement. Moreover the current research conducted by Cheung has relative calculations to support its findings, which could help investors and managers to make adequate decisions.      

Strengths

 

With the help of this study companies will be able to understand the significance of illiquidity and liquidity that is currently affecting the price movement of capital market. Furthermore, the impact of stock price informativeness could help companies to make adequate decision to keep liquidity in their stocks. Moreover, the study also helps different companies to use compensation method to reduce illiquidity during the new share issue. Lastly, the research could help managers to make adequate investment decisions by evaluating illiquidity of capital market.  

Weaknesses

 

The major weaknesses that engulf the overall research are the lack of accommodating current market scenario in the research. Furthermore, the study does not evaluate the changing preference of investor’s preference. Moreover, this research only evaluates the sentiments of investors in US and loses its friction in other market conditions. In addition, the researcher did not use Gordon growth model to evaluate the future growth prospects of the company. Moreover, the use of automatic computerised trading also reduces friction of the overall research.   

Limitations

 

Current the overall capital market mainly revolves under patterns, technical analysis, valuational and algorithm trading. In addition, theses changing preference of investors mainly provide a major limitation to the findings of the research. Furthermore, the impact of an economic crisis could also result in illiquidity of the stock market and neglect the significance of informative stocks. In addition, highly liquid and financially strong companies in the current era do not use compensation method during SEO.    

 

Article Summary

Reference

 

The article summary follows the APA style referencing

Darden.virginia.edu. (2016). Home. [online] Available at: http://www.darden.virginia.edu [Accessed 27 Jul. 2016].

 

Article classification (academic conceptual, academic empirical)

Article Classification: Academic empirical

Journal ranking (ABDC quality journal listing)

A*

Impact factor

HERDSA

Aim/Purpose of article

The journal on “Corporate Governance in the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis: Evidence from Financial Institutions Worldwide” aims to investigate the effects of corporate governance during the period of worldwide financial crisis on the performance of financial corporations.

(If an empirical paper) research methodology employed (qual, quant, mixed methods); sampling strategy and sample size employed; context of study eg location, industry; method of data collection methods employed; method of analysis employed.

-          Research Methodology-

The present research study adopts the quantitative research procedure for examination of the impact of the corporate governance on the performance of different firms during the year 2007 and 2008 (that is during the period of financial crisis). The current study stresses on different objective enumeration along with statistical and mathematical analysis of the data collected from pre-existing statistical data by utilizing diverse computational mechanisms.

-          Sampling Strategy and sample size-

The sample of the present study comprises of 306 financial corporations that are mainly publicly-listed across 31 different nations during the period December 2006. The sample selected is covered under the Compustat or CRSP and need to have data on total assets, equity of the shareholders, earnings as well as share returns. In addition to this, the sample is limited to corporations that are under the purview of the BoardEx Database. Thereafter, the sample is also limited to corporations belonging to different industries that are having total assets greater than US $10 billion and having Bloomberg coverage. The sample size therefore comprises of 306 financial firms across 31 different nations that are publicly listed. The strategy for selection of the sample is essentially purposive (Darden.virginia.edu, 2016). The research uses sample that are selected primarily based on the purpose of the present study.

Context of the study-

Location- The present study concentrates on publicly listed financial firms that are located across 31 different nations. The study examines the role played by corporate governance during the period of crisis by selecting a sample of 306 financial institutions from 31 different nations located across the world (Darden.virginia.edu, 2016).

In addition to this, the present study raises a question regarding the relationship between different aspects of corporate governance with the performance of different financial corporation during the period of financial crisis.

Industry- Finance

Methods of data collection- The current study uses secondary data collection mechanism that is easily available from other sources. The secondary data is primarily collected from the WDCI menu of the Bloomberg database, BoardEx database and the Compustat database or else the Compustat/CRSP. The study uses secondary data that were essentially collected for other purposes. For instance, the current study uses the data provided in the WDCI menu of the Bloomberg that acquired important data on the accounting writedowns as well as new capital raisings at the time of financial crisis.

Method of evaluation-

The present study carries out a logit regression to examine the hypothesis statement. The study therefore conducts hypothesis testing for the present study. The study concentrates on the evaluation of the impact of for corporate governance on the sensitivities of CE

Performance. The study uses a logit model for regressing the CEO Turnover on the losses of the shareholder, corporate governance in addition to a term that interacts with both shareholder losses as well as corporate governance. The current study uses three proxy variables such as the cumulative number of the accounting write downs and, capital raisings and stock return. In addition to this, the current study also utilizes dummy variables for the countries, membership of the industry, firm size taken as the log of the assets possessed by the firms. Furthermore, the current study also makes use of standard errors that are essentially grouped by different nations in different regression coefficient. The chief variables that are of main concern are the dealings as well as the interactions between the shareholders and the corporate governance in firms. Regression models are used in this study for the interaction terms between the losses borne by the shareholders and the independence of the board. Different predicted signs of the coefficients of different interaction variables are also used as per given in the statement of the null hypothesis.

(If an empirical paper) research findings and conclusions drawn by researchers

Research Findings-

The findings of the study suggests that the results are consistent with the null hypothesis of the study that expresses the view that different corporate boards as well as institutional ownership and not the insider ownership acts as a disciplinary method in terminating the CEOs of corporation at the time of financial crisis. The outcomes of the regression of ROA as well as Cumulative returns of share on measures of corporate governance along with different control variables suggests that the independence of the board is positively related to the average return on assets. In addition to this, the results of the research also suggest the fact that the independence of the board is also positively related to the cumulative returns on shares before the worldwide financial crisis. Again, the research also suggests the fact that the US firms were more adversely affected during the period of crisis but they did not take up higher risks during the period of crisis. The turnover test conducted for the CEOs also reveal the fact that the impact of the average interaction is also recorded to be positive as well as significant for different interactions of dummy variables of US with the capital raisings. However, the interaction is registered to be negative for the interaction between the dummy variables of the US and the returns of the share price. This implies that the CEOs in US were more adversely affected than CEOs in other nations.

Conclusions drawn by authors

Conclusion-

The current research study focuses on the significance of corporate governance during the period of financial crisis by utilizing a data set that consists of 306 financial institutions location across 31 nations across the globe. The results of the study reveal the fact that the stricter system of monitoring by the boards as well as investors is related to the process of disciplining the executives of the corporations after the period of crisis. The risk assumed before the period of crisis has also affected the process of the disciplining the executives. The study also reflects the fact that the independence of board of directors as well as the investors is also related to the higher sensitivity of the turnover performance of the CEOs of the companies. The study also elucidates the effect of the risk assumption before the period of crisis on the overall profitability of the firms. The short term orientation of the board of directors has also affected the profitability of the firms. There are firms that assumed higher risk before the crisis experienced higher rate of growth before the crisis but incurred losses during the financial crisis period. However, the firms that had short term orientation avoided assumption of higher rate of risks. The examination of the pay packages of the CEOs also reflects the fact that the compensation structure that depended on the bonuses and not on the equity based compensation suffered greater amount of losses both during as well as before the period of financial crisis across the globe. The outcomes are also consistent with an inadequacy in different mechanisms of the corporate governance that played a significant role during the period of financial crisis. At the end, it can also be said that the process of external monitoring by the board of directors is also a significant factor that has positively affected the entire procedure for disciplining the people in the higher echelon of the management of different corporations. Finally, the external control by the independent board of directors has also encouraged different corporations to endow capital in assets that in turn enhanced the performance of the firms during the short-term but led to huge losses during the period of financial crisis.

Critical Insight

Significance

Significance of the article in relation to the topic generally, other articles in the literature, other articles in this bibliography assignment etc

The present study elucidates the role played by different mechanisms of corporate governance during the period of financial credit crisis. The current study reflects the effect of the turnover of the CEOs on the losses of the shareholders of the firms and its association with the independence of the board of directors and institutional ownership.

Strengths

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The current study helps in understanding the interaction between the losses of the shareholders and different factors of governance. In addition to this, this study presents a clear overview regarding the interactions between the losses incurred by the shareholders and the independence of the board of directors. Furthermore, the study helps in gaining a comprehensive understanding regarding the impact of the corporate governance on the sensitivities of the performance turnover of the CEOs. The present study also examines the relationship between different mechanisms of corporate governance and the risks assumed by the firms.

Weaknesses

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The present study includes only the financial institutions for analysing the impact of different mechanisms of corporate governance during the period of worldwide crisis on the performance of firms. Therefore, the research study only deals with the firms in the finance industry and not the firms from other sectors. Again, the study uses purposive sample for the purpose of accumulation of the required sample. Therefore, the purposive non-probabilistic sampling used in this quantitative research comprises of data that are acceptable for the particular circumstances and depends on the own judgement of the researcher. Therefore, the biases of the researcher can affect the outcomes of the study.

Limitations

Personal evaluation required rather than simply repeatingany author’s suggestions.

The limitations of the present study are that by utilizing a data set that consists of 306 financial institutions location across 31 nations across the globe. The research study is only limited to 306 financial institutions that stresses on different objective enumeration along with statistical and mathematical analysis of the data.

 

Conclusion:

In conclusion, it can be said that the above mentioned study deals with three different articles in the area of corporate finance. The current study uses empirical journals on corporate finance that makes use of quantitative research methodology to analyse the question or else the hypothesis of the three different articles. The present study presents a detailed analysis of the process of analysing the performance of different estimators for correcting the econometric biases in the dynamic panel models of corporate finance. The researcher uses the purposive non-probabilistic sampling with the intention and purpose of selecting the required quantitative data. The third article helps in understanding in gaining deep understanding regarding the influence of different mechanisms that can be used for analysing the influences of different factors of corporate finance on the performance of firms during the period of crisis. This study also makes use of secondary data sources and adopts the quantitative techniques for enumerating the effects of the corporate governance. The present study elucidates the role played by different mechanisms of corporate governance during the period of financial credit crisis. The current study reflects the effect of the turnover of the CEOs on the losses of the shareholders of the firms and its association with the independence of the board of directors and institutional ownership. In addition to this, the current study also deals with an article that replicates the impact of market microstructure on corporate financing decisions. In addition, the study mainly helps investor and company to understand the significance of information and how it could reduce market illiquidity. Besides, the research also helps the stock priced companies to uphold adequate information flow to decrease illiquidity in the shares. Additionally, the researcher has in effect utilized diffident models and genuine market data to comprehend the implication of instructive share price. In addition, the different approach has mainly helped other researchers to use the research outcome as a valid statement in their study. The analysis of the three articles therefore helps in understanding three different topics on finance that follows empirical research process. The study also helps in understanding the procedure for arriving at conclusive results from the hypothesis or else the questions that the article initially proposes to examine. However, there are several limitations of the three articles as is presented in the analytical section of the article. The limitations as well as the weaknesses of the study also help us in understanding the future scope of the three different studies.

 

References

Aebi, V., Sabato, G., & Schmid, M. (2012). Risk management, corporate governance, and bank performance in the financial crisis. Journal of Banking & Finance, 36(12), 3213-3226.

Barsotti, F., & Sanfelici, S. (2016). Market Microstructure Effects on Firm Default Risk Evaluation. Econometrics, 4(3), 31.

Brealey, R. A., Myers, S. C., Allen, F., & Mohanty, P. (2012). Principles of corporate finance. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Brewer, P., Cvitanic, J., & Plott, C. R. (2013). Market microstructure design and flash crashes: a simulation approach. Journal of Applied Economics,16(2), 223-250.

Coles, J. L., Lemmon, M. L., & Meschke, J. F. (2012). Structural models and endogeneity in corporate finance: The link between managerial ownership and corporate performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 103(1), 149-168.

Dahlhaus, R., & Neddermeyer, J. C. (2014). Online spot volatility-estimation and decomposition with nonlinear market microstructure noise models.Journal of Financial Econometrics, 12(1), 174-212.

Darden.virginia.edu. (2016). Home. [online] Available at: http://www.darden.virginia.edu [Accessed 27 Jul. 2016].

Fodra, P., & Pham, H. (2015). Semi-markov model for market microstructure. Applied Mathematical Finance, 22(3), 261-295.

Gattonweb.uky.edu. (2016). Gatton College of Business and Economics - University of Kentucky. [online] Available at: http://gattonweb.uky.edu [Accessed 27 Jul. 2016].

King, M. R., Osler, C. L., & Rime, D. (2013). The market microstructure approach to foreign exchange: Looking back and looking forward. Journal of International Money and Finance, 38, 95-119.

Lehalle, C. A., & Laruelle, S. (Eds.). (2013). Market microstructure in practice. World Scientific.

Ling, D., & Archer, W. (2012). Real estate principles: A value approach. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

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